Since its entrance into the Indian market, Pin Up Casino India has been raising the bar for online gaming. Catering to the gaming preferences of Indian players, the platform offers a wide range of games, from Indian classics like Andar Bahar to global favorites like poker and roulette. Pin Up Casino India also impresses with its secure payment options, including UPI and other local methods, making transactions hassle-free for Indian players. Backed by a dedicated customer support team and enticing promotions, Pin Up Casino India is redefining the online gaming experience in the country.
For Android users, the 1xBet APK download offers an opportunity to access one of the most comprehensive betting platforms around. The APK ensures the best functionality of the app, offering a smooth and secure betting experience. Users can access a variety of sports betting options, live betting, and a diverse range of casino games right on their Android devices. Furthermore, the 1xBet APK guarantees that you stay updated with the latest events and promotions. With a few simple steps, you can install the 1xBet APK and immerse yourself in a thrilling betting journey, wherever you are.
Catering to the specific interests of Indian bettors, 1xBet India has made a mark in the country's online betting scene. The platform offers a vast selection of sports popular in the Indian market, including cricket, kabaddi, and football. It also provides betting opportunities on a plethora of international sports events. In addition to its sports offerings, 1xBet India also hosts an impressive online casino with a wide array of games. The platform ensures the users' convenience with a range of payment options, including the popular UPI system. Combining these user-friendly features with enticing promotions and excellent customer service, 1xBet India delivers a superior betting experience tailored to the Indian audience.

About Us

JPL database

The catalog of thhe JPL Molecular Spectroscopy group provides transition frequencies of atoms and molecules mostly for microwave sounding of the atmospheres of Earth, other Solar and extrasolar planets as well as for radio astronomy.

As of January 2015, almost 750 species are available which refer not only to the main isotopic species and the ground vibrational state, but also to minor isotopic species and excited vibrational states as far as these may be of interest for radio astronomers. The catalog is similar to that of the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy. Duplication is avoided, nevertheless, some overlap exists. Frequently, entries in the CDMS catalog are more recent and then usually more reliable, some common entries exist, and in some cases, the JPL catalog entry is more recent and then usually more reliable.

Wavelengths reach from longer than microwaves to the millimeter, terahertz, and far-infrared region, in few cases also to the infrared.

As a partner of the VAMDC, the JPL catalog is accessible from the general VAMDC portal and from [].

For any question or feedback use the forum link here.

  • Scientific objectives-


    The physical and chemical conditions of the diverse regions in space determine which of the atoms or molecules can be observed in emission or absorption at certain wavelengths. In turn, observations of certain atoms or molecules provide information on densities, temperatures, degrees of ionization, or other properties in a given region in space. Another important aspect of astrochemistry is the complexity of molecules observable in space as molecules formed in a molecular cloud around a young star may contribute to the formation of life on a planet such as Earth.


    Around 200 molecules have been detected in diverse media in space (ISM, CSEs, stellar, and planetray atmospheres (see. e.g. or since the late 1930s in the optical and since the late 1960s by means of radio astronomy.


    As a consequence, multifrequency observations can be used to reconstruct the physical structure of the studied object under the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE). LTE is a reasonable assumption at elevated temperatures (> ~50 K) and at larger densities (> ~104/cm3). Collisional processes may have to be considered if one of the conditions is not met. Radiative processes may also be important.


    With the advent of a new generation of heterodyne instruments possessing large instantaneous bandwidths, from the ground-based single-dish 30m IRAM [] to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array [ALMA,] interferometer, and to the Herschel Space Observatory [], the simultaneous observations of several molecular transitions is routine nowadays. In fact, unbiased spectral surveys are becoming a privileged tool for studying the chemical and physical structure of astrophysical sources.


    Finally, the ever-increasing sensitivity of receivers will also lead to an increasing number of molecular lines to interpret. The huge investment in these new observational facilities, makes the knowledge and availability of accurate transition frequencies and intensities essential. In this context, having easy access to reliable databases of transition frequencies of atoms and molecules has become more than an urgent need: it is a must.

  • Methodoly for data-


    Entries are usually generated from laboratory data, astronomical data may be employed if appropriate. Most of the entries are fit in-house to accepted Hamiltonian model to generate spectroscopic parameters describing the spectrum in the most reliable way possible from the existing data. Even for simple cases, it is important to scrutinize the reported uncertainties, provided any are given. It is found quite frequently that reported uncertainties are too optimistic or too pessimistic. The step also involves testing the correctness of the assignments. The Hamiltonian model needs to be scrutinized also thoroughly; sometimes small modifications in the model can result in greatly improved models.


    Correct prediction of the intensities requires the dipole moment (components) to be known sufficiently well from experiment or from quantum chemical calculations. Rotational or vibrational corrections will be employed if they are known with sufficient certainty. In cases of vibration-rotation interaction or tunneling-rotation interaction, it may be important to evaluate the dependence of intensities on the signs of interaction parameters relative to those of the dipole moment components.

  • Contact-


    Manager: C. Endres (endres[at]